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Supporting Research

A partial list of relevant studies are listed below:

Historical Studies

  • Ortuño-Lizarán I, Beach TG, Serrano GE, Walker DG, Adler CH, Cuenca N. Phosphorylated α-synuclein in the retina is a biomarker of Parkinson’s disease pathology severity. Mov Disord. May 2018.
  • Price DL, Rockenstein E, Mante M, et al. Longitudinal live imaging of retinal α-synuclein:GFP deposits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson’s disease/Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Sci Rep. 2016;6:29523.
  • Meng T, Zheng ZH, Liu TT, Lin L. Contralateral Retinal Dopamine Decrease and Melatonin Increase in Progression of Hemiparkinsonium Rat. Neurochem Res. May 2012;37(5):1050-1056.
  • Witkovsky P. Dopamine and retinal function. Doc Ophthalmol. January 2004;108(1):17-40.
  • Videnovic A, Klerman EB, Wang W, Marconi A, Kuhta T, Zee PC. Timed light therapy for sleep and daytime sleepiness associated with parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74(4):411-418.
  • Joyce DS, Feigl B, Kerr G, Roeder L, Zele AJ. Melanopsin-mediated pupil function is impaired in Parkinson’s disease. Scientific Reports. May 2018;8(7796):1-9.
  • Archibald NK, Clarke MP, Mosimann UP, Burn DJ. The retina in Parkinson’s disease. Brain. May 2009;132(5):1128-1145.
  • Lucas RJ. Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age. Trends Neurosci. January 2014;37(1):1-9.
  • Glickman G, Byrne B, Pineda C, Hauck WW, Brainard GC. Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder with blue narrow-band light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Biol Psychiatry. March 2006;59(6):502-7.
  • Strong RE, Marchant BK, Reimherr FW, Williams E, Soni P, Mestas R. Narrow-band blue-light treatment of seasonal affective disorder in adults and the influence of additional nonseasonal symptoms. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(3):273-8.
  • Figueiro MG, Plitnick BA, Lok A, et al. Tailored lighting intervention improves measures of sleep, depression, and agitation in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia living in long-term care facilities. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:1527-1537.
  • Anderson JL, Glod CA, Dai J, Cao Y, Lockley SW. Lux vs. wavelength in light treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. Sep 2009;120(3):203-12.
  • Willis GL, Turner EJ. Primary and secondary features of Parkinson’s disease improve with strategic exposure to bright light: a case series study. Chronobiol Int. 2007;24(3):521-537.
  • Kessel L, Siganos G, Jørgenen T, Larsen M. Sleep disturbances are related to decreased transmission of blue light to the retina caused by lens yellowing. Sleep. September 2011;34(9):1215-9.
  • Willis GL, Turner EJ. Primary and secondary features of Parkinson’s disease improve with strategic exposure to bright light: a case series study. Chronobiol Int. 2007;24(3):521-537.
  • Willis GL, Moore C, Armstrong SM. A historical justification for and retrospective analysis of the systematic application of light therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Rev Neurosci. 2012;23(2):199-226.

Animal Studies

  • Meng, T., Zheng, Z. H., Liu, T. T., & Lin, L. (2012). Contralateral retinal dopamine decrease and melatonin increase in progression of hemiparkinsonium rat. Neurochemical research, 37(5), 1050-1056.
  • Willis, G. L., Moore, C., & Armstrong, S. M. (2014). Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina. Scientific Reports, 4, 3921.
  • Willis, G. L., & Armstrong, S. M. (1999). A therapeutic role for melatonin antagonism in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease. Physiology & behavior, 66(5), 785-795.
  • Willis, G. L., & Robertson, A. D. (2005). Recovery from experimental Parkinson’s disease in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride treated marmoset with the melatonin analogue ML-23. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 80(1), 9-26.

Human Studies

  • Videnovic A, Klerman EB, Wang W, Marconi A, Kuhta T, Zee PC. Timed Light Therapy for Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness Associated With Parkinson disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA neurology. 2017.
  • Willis GL, Turner EJ. Primary and secondary features of Parkinson’s disease improve with strategic exposure to bright light: a case series study. Chronobiology international. 2007;24(3):521-537.
  • Willis GL, Moore C, Armstrong SM. A historical justification for and retrospective analysis of the systematic application of light therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Reviews in the neurosciences. 2012;23(2):199-226.
  • Rutten S, Vriend C, Smit JH, Berendse HW, van Someren EJW, Hoogendoorn AW, Twisk JW, van der Werf YD, van den Heuvel OA. The effects of bright light therapy on depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease and a depressive disorder [under review].
  • Romenets, S. R., Creti, L., Fichten, C., Bailes, S., Libman, E., Pelletier, A., & Postuma, R. B. (2013). Doxepin and cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia in patients with Parkinson’s disease–a randomized study. Parkinsonism & related disorders, 19(7), 670-675.
  • Artemenko, A. R., & Levin, I. A. I. (1996). The phototherapy of parkinsonism patients. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni SS Korsakova, 96(3), 63-66.
  • Paus S, Schmitz-Hubsch T, Wullner U, Vogel A, Klockgether T, Abele M. Bright light therapy in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Mov Disord. 2007;22(10):1495-1498.

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